To understand how the vector potential enters a tight-binding model by the so-called Peierls substitution, let us remind ourselves that the gauge-invariance of the Schrodinger equation requires us to transform the wave-function amplitude or equivalently the creation operator of an electron at a site as

To understand how the vector potential enters a tight-binding model by the so-called Peierls substitution, let us remind ourselves that the gauge-invariance of the Schrodinger equation requires us to transform the wave-function amplitude or equivalently the creation operator of an electron at a site as

where $\Lambda(\bf r)$ generates the gauge transformation of the vector potential $\bf A(\bf r)\rightarrow \bf A(\bf r)+\bf\nabla A(\bf r)$. If there is no magnetic field then the vector potential can locally be set to $\bf A=0$ by an appropriate gauge choice of $\bf \Lambda$. The hopping term in the absence of a vector potential is written as $H_t=t_{jl}c_j^\dagger c_l+h.c$, which must gauge transform to

where $\Lambda(\bf r)$ generates the gauge transformation of the vector potential $\bf A(\bf r)\rightarrow \bf A(\bf r)+\bf\nabla \Lambda(\bf r)$. If there is no magnetic field then the vector potential can locally be set to $\bf A=0$ by an appropriate gauge choice of $\bf \Lambda$. The hopping term in the absence of a vector potential is written as $H_t=t_{jl}c_j^\dagger c_l+h.c$, which must gauge transform to

While this expression is derived for zero magnetic field, by choosing the integration path to be the shortest distance over nearest neighbor bond, this expression is used to include magnetic fields in lattice models. This is referred to as the Peierls substitution for lattices.

While this expression is derived for zero magnetic field, by choosing the integration path to be the shortest distance over nearest neighbor bond, this expression is used to include magnetic fields in lattice models. This is referred to as the Peierls substitution for lattices.