Black holes located in dwarf galaxies usually stop star formation but now one has been seen seeding new stars through a huge plume of ionised gas
A black hole at the centre of a dwarf galaxy has birthed new stars by expelling jets of gas hundreds of lightyears wide.
Astronomers have observed supermassive black holes birthing star-forming regions before, but until now it was thought that all black holes residing in dwarf galaxies, which contain a billion stars or less, seemed to hinder star formation.
Zachary Schutte at the Montana State University and his colleagues observed the black hole in a dwarf galaxy called Hen 2-10 spewing out a plume of ionised gas nearly 500 light years long, stretching from the galactic centre to a cloud of gas on the galaxy’s edge where stars were forming.
Schutte and his team used the Hubble Space Telescope to observe and carry out spectroscopy on the dim dwarf galaxy which is about 34 million light years away in the constellation Pyxis.
Astronomers are interested in dwarf galaxies like Hen 2-10 because they could be similar to the galaxies found in the very early universe. If the laws governing galaxy evolution have not changed, understanding how these galaxies form new stars could tell us how galaxies like our own Milky Way might have first evolved.
“Any time that we find new interactions between [black holes] and their host galaxies, especially in dwarf galaxies like this, it speaks to possible ways stars were formed and how galaxies grew in the early universe,” says Schutte.
Many dwarf galaxies are so dim that it can be difficult to distinguish whether there is a black hole or a supernova in the centre. But the high-resolution method that Schutte and his team used for Hen 2-10 resulted in strong evidence of a black hole, providing a potential roadmap for imaging other dwarf galaxies.
“It’s a real breakthrough, because it allows us to say with confidence that it is a [black hole] source as opposed to a supernova,” says Joanna Piotrowska at the University of Cambridge. “That is a major step in this puzzle.”
Journal reference: Nature, DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04215-6
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